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For more effective farming in hilly areas the terracing method is used. This method of farming uses “steps” that is built into the side of a mountain or hill. On each level, various crops are planted. When it rains, instead of washing away all of the nutrients in the soil, the nutrients are carried down to the next level.
A field spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of excess flow of water from field to a downstream area. In the rod-kohi area of southern Districts of KP, the sailaba water from mountains is harvested in large tracts of land to allow it to percolate for crop production and improve ground water recharge. These are structures where soil is protected from being lost with excess of runoff water.
Water storage ponds serve as source of water, harvested from runoff or perennial springs. Typically, the water storage capacity of a pond is 5 to 10 acre feet. The rain-fed areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are solely depended on rainfall for their agriculture.
STREAM BANK STABILIZATION
A vegetative, structural or combination treatment of streams designed to stabilize the stream and reduce erosion is called stream bank stabilization. Stream banks are more susceptible to erosion with running water. During the rainy season, this process accelerates and hence loses precious land of the farmers. In KP, this happens too much due to its topography and climatic conditions.